From 12–13th centuries, Tbilisi became a dominant regional power with a thriving economy (with well-developed trade and skilled labour) and a well-established social system/structure.By the end of the 12th century, the population of Tbilisi had reached 100,000.

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The king's falcon caught a pheasant, but both birds fell into a nearby hot spring and died.

King Vakhtang was so impressed with the discovery that he decided to build a city on this location.

Around 737, Arab armies entered the town under Marwan II Ibn-Muhammad.

The Arab conquerors established the Emirate of Tbilisi.

Archaeological studies of the region have however revealed that the territory of Tbilisi was settled by humans as early as the 4th millennium BC.

The earliest written accounts of settlement of the location come from the second half of the 4th century AD, when a fortress was built during King Varaz-Bakur's reign (ca. Towards the end of the 4th century the fortress fell into the hands of the Persians, but was recaptured by the kings of Kartli by the middle of the 5th century.

The emirate became an influential local state, and repeatedly tried to gain independence from the caliphate.

In 853, the armies of Arab leader Bugha al-Kabir ("Bugha the Turk" in Georgian sources) invaded Tbilisi in order to bring the emirate back under the control of the Abbasid Caliphate.

Arab rule brought a certain order to the region and introduced a more formal and modernized judicial system into Georgia, while Tbilisi prospered from the trade with the whole Middle East.

The Arab rule heavily influenced the cultural development of the city.

The history of Tbilisi, the capital of Georgia, dates back to at least the 5th century AD.